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A Comparison of The International Metric System & The English System of Measurement
1 Centimeter = .3937 Inches
1 Inch = 2.54 Centimeters
1 Foot = 30.48 Centimeters
1 Meter = 39.37 Inches
1 Meter = 100 Centimeters
1 Meter = 1.094 Yards
1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters
1 Millimeter = .001 Meter
1 Yard = .9144 Meters
1 Mile = 1,609.344 Meters
1 Kilometer = 1,000 Meters
1 Kilometer = .62137 Miles
1 Square Centimeter = .155 Square Inches
1 Square Centimeter =  100 Cubic Centimeters
1 Cubic Centimeter = .061 Cubic Inches
1 Cubic Decimeter = 1000 Centimeters
1 Cubic Meter = 1000 Milliliters
1 Fluid Ounce = 29.54 Milliliters
1 Liter = 100 Cubic Centimeters
1 Liter = 1.057 Quarts
1 Gallon = 3.785 Liters
1 Gram = 15.43 Grains
1 Ounce =  28.35 Grams
1 Kilogram = 1000 Grams
1 Kilogram = 2.205 Lbs.
1 Pound =  7000 Grains
1 Pound = .4536 Kilograms
1 Kilogram = 1 Liter
5 Milliliters (mL) = 5 Centimeters
15 mL = 1 Teaspoon
3 Teaspoons = 1 Tablespoon
24 Teaspoons = 1/2 Cup
48 Teaspoons = 1 Cup
Conversion Table
Multiply                                    To Obtain Multiply                                    To Obtain Multiply                                    To Obtain
Bushels by 8 Cubic Feet
Bushels by 4 Pecks
Bushels by .04545 Cubic Yards
   
Centimeters by .3937 Inches
Centimeters by .01 Meters
Centimeters by 10 Millimeters
   
Cubic Cent. by .00003531 Cubic Feet
Cubic Cent. by .06102 Cubic Inches
Cubic Cent. by 00001 Cubic Meters
Cubic Cent. by .000001308 Cubic Yards
Cubic Cent. by .0002642 Gallons
Cubic Cent. by .001 Liters
Cubic Cent. by .002113 Pints (liquid)
Cubic Cent. by .001057 Quarts (liquid)
   
Cubic Feet by .0002832 Cubic Centimeters
Cubic Feet by 1,728 Cubic Inches
Cubic Feet by .02832 Cubic Meters
Cubic Feet by .03704 Cubic Yards
Cubic Feet by 7.48052 Gallons
Cubic Feet by 28.32 Liters
Cubic Feet by 59.84 Pints (liquid)
Cubic Feet by 59.8429.92 Quarts (liquid)
Cubic Feet by 59.841.25 Bushels
   
Cubic Inches by 16.39 Cubic Centimeters
Cubic Inches by .0005787 Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches by .00001639 Cubic Meters
Cubic Inches by .00002143 Cubic Yards
Cubic Inches by .004329 Gallons
Cubic Inches by .01639 Liters
Cubic Inches by .03463 Pints (liquid)
Cubic Inches by .01732 Quarts (liquid)
   
Cubic Meters by 1,000 Cubic Centimeters
Cubic Meters by 35.31 Cubic Feet
Cubic Meters by 61.023 Cubic Inches
Cubic Meters by 1.308 Cubic Yards
Cubic Meters by 264.2 Gallons
Cubic Meters by 1,000 Liters
Cubic Meters by 2,113 Pints (liquid)
Cubic Meters by 1,057 Quarts (liquid)
   
Cubic Yards by 764,600 Cubic Centimeters
Cubic Yards by 22 Bushels
Cubic Yards by 27 Cubic Feet
Cubic Yards by 46.656 Cubic Inches
Cubic Yards by 0.7646 Cubic Meters
Cubic Yards by 202 Gallons

 

 

Cubic Yards by 764.6 Liters
Cubic Yards by 1616 Pints (liquid)
Cubic Yards by 807.9 Quarts (liquid)
   
Fathoms by 6 Feet
   
Feet by 30.48 Centimeters
Feet by 12 Inches
Feet by .3048 Meters
Feet by 1/3 Yards
   
Gallons by .3785 Cubic Centimeters
Gallons by .1337 Cubic Feet
Gallons by 231 Cubic Inches
Gallons by .003785 Cubic Meters
Gallons by .004951 Cubic Yards
Gallons by 3.785 Liters
Gallons by 8 Pints (liquid)
Gallons by 4 Quarts (liquid)
Gallons of water by 8.3453 Pounds of water
   
Grams by .03527 Ounces
Grams by .03215 Ounces (Troy)
Grams by .002205 Pounds
   
Inches by 2.540 Centimeters
   
Kilometers by 100,000 Centimeters
Kilometers by 3,281 Feet
Kilometers by 1,000 Meters
Kilometers by 0.6214 Miles
Kilometers by 1,094 Yards
   
Liters by 1,000 Cubic Centimeters
Liters by .03531 Cubic Feet
Liters by 61.02 Cubic Inches
Liters by .001 Cubic Meters
Liters by .001308 Cubic Yards
Liters by 0.2642 Gallons
Liters by 2,113 Pints (liquid)
Liters by 1.057 Quart (liquid)
   
Thickness  
(inches by length X feet)  
   
Meters by 100 Centimeters
Meters by 3.281 Feet
Meters by 39.37 Inches
Meters by .01 Kilometers
Meters by 1,000 Millimeters
Meters by 1.094 Yards

 

 

Microns by .000001 Meters
   
Miles by 160,900 Centimeters
Miles by 5,280 Feet
Miles by 1,609 Kilometers
Miles by 1,760 Yards
Miles per hr. by 44.70 Centimeters per second
Miles per hr. by 88 Feet per minute
Miles per hr. by 1.467 Feet per second
Miles per hr. by 1.609 Kilometers per hour
Miles per hr. by 0.8864 Knots
Miles per hr. by 26.82 Meters per minute
   
Millimeters by 0.03937 Inches
   
Ounces by 2 Tablespoons (liquid)
Ounces by 6 Teaspoons (liquid)
Ounces by 3 Tablespoons (dry)
Ounces by 9 Teaspoons (dry)
Ounces by 28.34527 Grams
Ounces by 0.9115 Ounces (Troy)
Ounces (fluid) by 1.805 Cubic Inches
   
Pounds by 16 Ounces
Pounds of water by 0.01602 Cubic Feet
Pounds of water by 27.68 Cubic Inches
Pounds of water by 0.1198 Gallons
   
Tablespoons (liq) by 0.5 Ounces
Tablespoons (dry) by 0.3333 Ounces
Tablespoons by 3 Teaspoons
   
Teaspoons (liq) by 0.1666 Ounces
Teaspoons (dry) by 0.1111 Ounces
Teaspoons by 0.3333 Tablespoons
   
Temp. (C) + 17.78 by 1.8 Temp. (F)
Temp. (F) - 32 by .555 Temp. (C)
   
Tons (Long) by 2,240 Pounds
Tons (short) by 2,000 Pounds

 

 

 

Conversion Table  
Measures Of Mass (Weight)
One Grain (Gr.)    = 64.7989 Milligrams
One Ounce (Oz.) (Avoirdupois) = 437.5 Grains
  = 28.3495 Grams
     
One Ounce (Troy) = 480 Grains
  = 31.102 Grams
     
One Pound (Lb.) (AV.) = 7,000 Grains
  = 16 Ounces (Av.)
  = 453.1 Grams
     
One Ton (Short) (U.S.) =  2,000 Pounds
  = 0.892 Long Ton
  = 0.9072 Metric Tons
  = 907.2 Kilograms
     
One Ton (Long U.S.) (British) = 2,240 Pounds
  = 1.120 Short Tons
  = 1.016 Metric Tons
  = 1,016.04 Kilograms
     
One Microgram (Mg.) = 0.001 Milligram
  = 1 Gamma (R)
     
One Milligram (Mg.)   = 0.001 Grams
  = 0.0154 Grains
  = 0.0353 Ounces (Av.)
     
One Kilogram (Kg.)   = 1,00 Grams
  = 35.27 Ounces (Av.)
  = 2.205 Pounds (Av.)
     
One Ton (Metric) (Tonne) = 1,000 Kilograms
  = 2,204.6 Pounds
  = 1.1023 Short Tons
  = 0.984 Long Tons
     
One Grain/Pound = 0.0143 Percent
     
One Milligram/Kilogram = 1 Part Per Million
  = 0.007 Grain/Pounds
     
One Pound/Cubic Foot = 0.26 Grams/Cubic Inches
     
One Gram/Cubic Inch = 3.78 Pounds/Cubic Feet

 

 

Most of the commercial containers of insecticides, fungicides, etc., give directions on using the chemical in 100 gallons of water.  The following table can be used to determine the quantity of chemical when using less than 100 gallons of spray.

Example: If the directions say to use 2 gallons of chemical to every 100 gallons of water, but you plan to make up only 1 gallon, the chart below directs you to use 2 1/2 ounces of chemical to 1 gallon of water.
 
Liquid Equivalent Table
100 Gallons 25 Gallons 12 1/2 Gallons 5 Gallons 1 Gallons
2 gallons 2 quarts 1 quart 12 7/8 ounces 2 1/2 ounces
1 gallon 1 quart 1 pint 6 1/2 ounces 1 1/4 ounces
2 quarts 1 pint 8 ounces 3 1/4 ounces 5/8 ounce
1 quart 1/2 pint 4 ounces 1 9/16 ounce 5/16 ounce
1 1/2 pint 6 ounces  3 ounces  1 1/4 ounces 1/4 ounce
1 pint 4 ounces 2 ounces 7/8 ounce 3/16 ounce
8 ounces 2 ounces 1 ounce 7/16 ounce 1/2 teaspoon
4 ounces 1 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/4 ounce 1/4 teaspoon
 
Solid Equivalent Table
100 Gallons 25 Gallons 12 1/2 Gallons 5 Gallons 1 Gallon
4 ounces 1 ounce 1/2 ounce 3/16 ounce 1/4 teaspoon
8 ounces 2 ounces 1 ounce 3/8 ounce 1/2 teaspoon
1 pound 4 ounces 2 ounces 7/8 ounce 1 teaspoon
2 pounds 8 ounces 4 ounces 1 3/4 ounce 2 teaspoon
3 pounds 12 ounces 6 ounces 2 3/8 ounces 2 2/5 teaspoons
4 pounds 1 pound 8 ounces 3 1/4 ounces 3 4/5 teaspoons
5 pounds 1 1/5 pounds 12 ounces 4 ounces 4 4/5 teaspoons
 
Soil Volume Equivalents
Although soil volume is affected by the looseness of the soil mix, amount of packing and similar factors, the following information serves as a guide in soil preparation.
Size of Pot cc/Std. Pot cc/3/4 Pot # Pots Per Bushel Size of Pot Pots/Bushel
2 1/4 Standard 75cc - 370 12 Standard 2
2 1/2 Standard 125cc - 220 4 Azalea (3/4) 80
3 Standard 200cc 175cc 150 5 Azalea 40
4 Standard 500cc 475cc 55 6 Azalea 22
5 Standard 900cc 875cc 30 5 Low Pan 50
6 Standard 1,500cc 1,400cc 18 6 Low Pan 39
7 Standard 2,500cc 2,250cc 11 7 Low Pan 17
8 Standard 3,300cc 2,700cc 7    

Cubic Measure
1,728 Cubic Inches      =          1 Cubic Foot
27 Cubic Feet              =          1 Cubic Yard

Linear Measure
12 Inches                     =          1 Foot
3 Feet                          =          1 Yard

16 Feet or
5 Yards                    =          1 Rod

660 Feet
220 Yards or
40 Rods                       =          1 Furlong

5,280 Feet
1,760 Yards
320 Rods or
8 Furlongs                    =          1 Mile

Dry Measure
50-60 Drops                =          1 Level Teaspoon
3 Level Teaspoons       =          1 Level Tablespoon
2 Level Tablespoons     =          1 Fluid Ounce
8 Fluid Ounces             =          1 Cup
2 Cups (4 Gills)            =          1 Pint
2 Pints                          =          1 Quart
4 Quarts                       =          1 Gallon
31 Gallons                =          1 Barrel

Square Measure
144 Square Inches        =          1 Square Foot
9 Square Feet               =          1 Square Yard
30 Square Yards          =          1 Square Rod

43,560 Square Feet
4,840 Square Yards Or
160 Square Rods         =         1 Acre

 640 Acres                    =          1 Square Mile

Volume
1 Gallon (U.S.)             =          128 Fluid Ounces (U.S.)
                                    =          231 Cubic Inches
                                    =          0.833

 Liquid Measure
50-60 Drops                =          1 Teaspoonful
3 Teaspoonful*             =          1 Tablespoonful
2 Tablespoonful*          =          1 Fluid Ounce
8 Fluid Ounces             =          1 Cupful
2 Cupfuls (4 Gills)         =          1 Pint
2 Pints                          =          1 Quart
4 Quarts                       =          1 Gallon
31 Gallons                =          1 Barrel

 

*Level Spoonfuls

 

Measuring Tables for Mixing Pesticide or Foliar Spray

The following table can be used to mix different amounts of a spray of the same mixture when using wettable powers.

Example:  If the label specifies that 3 lbs. of a wettable powder pestidie material are to be added to 100 gallons of water, then 1.5 T. of the pesticide material would make 1 gallon of similar spray mixture.

Water Quantity of Powdered Pesticide Material Needed
100 gals. 1 lb. 2 lbs. 3 lbs. 4 lbs. 5 lbs. 6 lbs.
25 gals. 4 oz. 8 oz. 12 oz. 1 lb. 1 1/4 lbs. 1 1/2 lbs.
5 gals. 2.5 T. or 5-10 T. or 7.5-15 T. or 10-20 T. or 12.5-25 T. 15-30 T.
  1 cup 1 1/4 cup 1 1/2 cup 1 3/4 cup    
1 gal. 1/2-1 T. 1-2 T. 1 1/2-3 T. 2-4 T. 2 1/2-5 T 3-6 T.

(The above measurements of WP are acceptable for practical purposes.)

Tablespoon measurements will vary depending on the weight of the soluble powder.  Tablespoons are really not intended for weight measurements and are offered solely as a convenience to the user.  Different amounts of similar spray can be made from the following table, when liquid pesticide material (emulsifiable concentrates or EC) are used.  When reducing the amount of spray mixture, be sure to stay in the right column and line as indicated above.

Water Quantity of Powdered Pesticide Material Needed
100 gals 1/2 pt. 1 pt. 2 pts. 3 pts. 4 pts. 5 pts.
25 gals 2fl. oz. 4 fl. oz. 8 fl. oz. 12 fl. oz. 1 pt. 1 1/4 pts.
5 gals. 1 T. 2 T. or 4 T. or 6 T. or 8 T. or 10 T. or
    1 fl. oz. 2 fl. oz. 3 fl. oz. 4 fl. oz. 5 fl. oz.
1 gal. 3/4 t. 1 1/2 t. 3 t. 4 1/2 t. 6 t or 7 1/2 t.
2 T.

The above tables are strictly based on information that should be found on the label of the particular pesticide that will be used.

For amounts of spray not listed, the tables above can be halved, doubled or by adding combinations as needed.

Key for teaspoons and tablespoons:
T. = Tablespoons
t. = Teaspoons

 

Calibrating Pesticide & Foliar Feed Equipment

The first step in calibrating spraying, dusting or granulating equipment is to read the entire label of the pesticide you are about to use.  Then decide on the dosage listed on the label that fits the needs for controlling that particular pest.  Next follow this check list:

   1.    Select nozzles to provide the proper application rate within the recommended range of pressures.
   2.    Adjust nozzles so that the coverage is uniform.
   3.    Regulate the pressure to give proper nozzle discharge rate and spray pattterns.
   4    Regulate and maintain ground speed for applying the correct amount of pesticide.
   5.    Prepare to calibrate equipment correctly.

Calibration of Hand Sprayers (Single Nozzle).
  
1.    Mark off an area 10 feet by 10 feet.
   2.    Fill sprayer with water to known mark and spray area.
   3.    Refill sprayer, measuring the amount of water required to refill to original level.
   4.    Determine per acre rate of spray delivery from:

Nozzle Discharge = Amount of Spray
per 100 sq. ft. = delivered per acre
  =  
1/2 pint = 27 gallons
1 pint = 55 gallons
1 1/2 pints = 82 gallons
1 quart = 110 gallons

Example: To determine rate for wettable powder in hand sprayer when using package directions that call for making large amounts of diluted finish spray note this example.  If the package says to add 2 pounds of soluble concentrate to 55 gallons of water and your back pack sprayer holds only 3 gallons of water, you must first convert the pounds to ounces.  In this case 2 pounds = 32 dry ounces.  Multiply the 32 ounces by the capacity of the back pack sprayer, which in this case is 3 gallons.  Next, multiply that answer by the 55 gallons and you will have your ounces in dry ounces.  32 times 3 divided by 55 = 1.745 ounces of dry concentrate needed for the three gallon sprayer.

2 lbs     x    55 gallons            x            3 gallon sprayer
32 oz.   x    3                        x                    55            =    1.7 oz. dry in 3 gallons of water

 

 

 

Problem solving: Percentage Active Ingredient
1. To determine the percentage of active ingredient in a spray mixture:

Formula:         (lbs. insecticide used) x (% active ingredient)
                           (gallons of spray mixture) x (8.3)

Example: Eight pounds of Captan 50 percent wettable powder were mixed in 100 gallons of water.  What percentage of Captan did the finished spray contain?

                    8 x 50        =        0.48% Captan
                  100 x 8.3

 

2.    To determine the pounds of wettable powder needed to mix a spray contain a given percentage of active ingredients:

Formula:        (gallons of spray wanted) x (% active ingredient wanted) x (8.3 lbs.)
                                        (% active ingredient in insecticide used)

Example: Start with the gallons of finished diluted spray you wish to make and multiply it by the percentage of active ingredient you wish the finished spray to have.  Take that number and multiply it by the weight of 1 gallon of water (8.3 lbs.), then divide that number by the percentage of active ingredient listed on the dry concentrate package.

Example: How many pounds of Lindane 25 percent wettable powder are needed to make 100 gallons of spray containing 0.03 percent Lindane?

                100 x 0.03 x 8.3        =        1.0 lb.
                            25

 

3.     To determine the gallons of emulsifiable concentrate needed to mix a spray containing a given percentage of active ingredient:

Formula:        (gallons of spray wanted) x (% active ingredient wanted) x (8.3 lbs)
                                (lbs. active ingredient per gallon of concentrate) x (100)

Example: How many gallons of 25 percent emulsifiable concentrate (2 pounds per gallon) are needed to make 100 gallons of spray containing 0.25 percent insecticide?

                100 x 0.25 x 8.3          =        1.04 gallons
                        2 x 100

 

 


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